Archive for the ‘Education’ Category

Varea, V., Pang, B.
Using visual methodologies to understand pre-service Health and Physical Education teachers’ subjectivities of bodies
(2016) Sport, Education and Society, pp. 1-13. Article in Press.

DOI: 10.1080/13573322.2016.1228625

Socio-cultural theorists have argued that having a diverse understanding of subjectivities of normal/ideal bodies is important for Health and Physical Education (HPE) teachers. When teachers hold a single understanding and perception of normal/ideal bodies, such as a thin body as normal or ideal body, which are usually informed by dominant discourses, they may (re)produce narrow understandings of bodies among their students. This paper focuses on how a group of pre-service HPE specialist teachers (11 females and 3 males, aged between 18 and 26 at the time of the first interview) from an Australian university, discuss issues related to subjectivities of bodies. It draws on visual methodologies and semi-structured interviews to understand how these pre-service HPE specialist teachers construct discourses of bodies. Foucault’s concepts of normalisation, surveillance and biopedagogies are used to explore discursive constructions of bodies, with a particular focus on how some discourses are normalised via surveillance techniques. The results of the study invite us to reflect on how images may promote certain ways of thinking about and considering the body among pre-service HPE specialist teachers. In light of contradictions which were found across the comments of two participants who constructed different discourses during the interviews, we posit that making sense of subjectivities of bodies is complex and often contradictory. Furthermore, the results suggest that photo elicitation is a useful visual method for theorising issues related to bodies. Results can inform teacher education and policy in how to better prepare pre-service HPE teachers to teach about bodies. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Author Keywords
biopedagogies; bodies; normalisation; photo elicitation; Pre-service Health and Physical Education teachers; surveillance

Index Keywords
adult, clinical article, female, human, male, physical education, semi structured interview, teacher, thinking, university

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Edwards, R.
Competence-based education and the limitations of critique
(2016) International Journal of Training Research, 14 (3), pp. 244-255.

DOI: 10.1080/14480220.2016.1254366

Drawing upon the work of Foucault and Latour, this article reflects on 25 years of critique of competence-based education and its continuing strength as a way of framing education and training. Using an example from England, it rehearses the argument from Foucault that, despite its student-centred discourse, competence-based education can be positioned as one of the disciplining techniques in modern societies. However, beyond the research community, such critiques have had little impact. The article seeks to explore this by drawing upon Latour’s argument that conventional forms of critique have run out of steam. This indicates the need for new forms of educational critique as a means of having impact on policy and practice. The article is theoretically driven and exploratory. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Author Keywords
competence-based education; critique; Foucault; Latour; vocational education

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Ja’afar, Z., Md. Yusof, N., Ibrahim, N.
Revisioning history: A deconstructionist reading of a learner’s multimodal text, ‘Revenge’
(2016) Asian Social Science, 12 (8), pp. 64-73.

DOI: 10.5539/ass.v12n8p64

Recent interest in multimodality recognizes the integration of text and image in meaning-making as representing reality. It has also been argued that with the use of digital communication, the meanings of visual and verbal data can be easily manipulated rendering them unreliable. As such, a close and critical reading of the text is required to discover what is hidden, absent, or inconsistent with it. In a deconstruction of a multimodal digital composition of a poem that involves revisioning of history, this paper privileges the absences of cultural and historical texts to signify socio-political issues. An eclectic use of theoretical concepts on meaning-making, especially those proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen, Foucault and Baudrillard, constructs the discussion of the analysis. The digital poem entitled ‘Revenge’ is deconstructed to further discover such absence in the text. The findings reveal that language and images are used by the learner as a source of power to negotiate the boundaries of identity. It has also been discovered that the message in rhetoric and visuals complement each other to support the process of meaning-making. © 2016, Canadian Center of Science and Education. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Absence; Deconstruction; Multimodal digital poem; Reality; Revisioning history; Socio-political

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Heffernan, A.
The Emperor’s perfect map: leadership by numbers
(2016) Australian Educational Researcher, 43 (3), pp. 377-391.

DOI: 10.1007/s13384-016-0206-7

This paper establishes that system-generated data profiles are influencing the work of principals in three Queensland state schools. Drawing upon Foucault’s notions of governance, as well as research emphasising performative cultures and the importance placed upon numbers and data in education, this paper uses the tale of the Emperor’s map as a metaphor to explore the way principals’ work is being influenced by specific sets of data compiled by the department. These data profiles are representative of external accountabilities and high stakes testing regimes, as seen in systems that have adopted neoliberal policies which attempt to quantify the work being undertaken in schools. The paper demonstrates that principals are being constructed in part by discourses from a system that emphasises these system-generated performance data as a driver for school improvement. © 2016, The Australian Association for Research in Education, Inc.

Author Keywords
Data; Performativity; School improvement; School principals

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Powell, D.
Governing the (un)healthy child-consumer in the age of the childhood obesity crisis
(2016) Sport, Education and Society, pp. 1-14. Article in Press.

DOI: 10.1080/13573322.2016.1192530

In recent years, multinational food and drink corporations and their marketing practices have been blamed for the global childhood obesity ‘crisis’. Unsurprisingly, these corporations have been quick to refute these claims and now position themselves as ‘part of the solution’ to childhood obesity. In this paper, I examine how and why corporations fund, devise and/or implement ‘healthy lifestyles education’ programmes in schools. By using a critical ethnographic research approach alongside Foucault’s notion of governmentality, I interrogate what those with the ‘will to govern’ (such as corporations) wanted to happen (e.g. fight obesity, change marketing practices and increase consumption), but also what actually happened when these corporatised education programmes met their intended targets in three New Zealand primary schools. I critically examine these programmes by focusing on the ways in which three technologies of consumption – product placement, transforming children into marketers and sponsorship – attempt to govern children to be lifelong consumers of the corporate brand image and their allegedly ‘healthy’ corporate products. Although students were not necessarily naïve and easily coerced into becoming mindless consumers of corporate products, students and their teachers readily accepted that sponsorship, product placement and marketing in schools were normal, natural, necessary and mostly harmless. Healthy lifestyles education programmes represent a new ‘brand’ of health, health education and corporation. The child-citizen is governed to become the child-consumer. Corporations’ anxieties about being blamed for childhood obesity are fused with technologies of ‘healthy consumption’: the consumption of corporate products, corporate philanthropy, the corporate brand and corporate ‘education’. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Author Keywords
childhood obesity; consumers; critical ethnography; food and drink industry; Foucault; governmentality; Health and physical education; marketing; sponsorship; technologies of consumption

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Paatela-Nieminen, M., Itkonen, T., Talib, M.-T.
Reconstructing Imagined Finnishness: The Case of Art Education through the Concept of Place
(2016) International Journal of Art and Design Education, 35 (2), pp. 229-242.

DOI: 10.1111/jade.12057

This multidisciplinary article presents a methodology, a research project and selected outcomes from an environmental art education course for teacher students. The course is part of an art education minor at the University of Helsinki, Department of Teacher Education. The students were asked to construct their place through an intertextual art method that provided them the means to study their place open-endedly as a space of plural cultural meanings. Applying the results from their intertextual process, they reconstructed their place artistically. The end product was a personal work of art that included traces of their chosen places, and created a new meaning for it. The outcome is a visual space of compacted meanings from different places. Places contain history and memories important to identity construction. The results show that the intertextual reading extends the students’ concept of place as a space for relational and plural cultural meanings. Foucault’s concept of heterotopia, as it applies to otherness of places and spaces, was used alongside the intertextual art method. © 2016 The Authors. iJADE © 2016 NSEAD/John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Author Keywords
art education; Finnishness; heteretopia; identity; intertextual art method; local/global culture; place

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Sonu, D., Benson, J.
The quasi-human child: How normative conceptions of childhood enabled neoliberal school reform in the United States
(2016) Curriculum Inquiry, 46 (3), pp. 230-247.

DOI: 10.1080/03626784.2016.1168259

This paper argues that normative conceptions of the child, as a natural quasi-human being in need of guidance, enable current school reforms in the United States to directly link the child to neoliberal aims and objectives. In using Foucault’s concept of governmentality and disciplinary power, we first present how the child is constructed as a subject of the adult world, then trace how such understandings invite school policies and practices that worked on the child, rather than with the child. In order to understand how the child comes to be known and recognized as a learner, both at the intersections of normative conceptions of childhood and material expectations of the student, we use Biesta’s three domains of education: socialization, qualification, and subjectification as an organizing framework and draw primarily from Common Core Learning Standards and related policy reports with the aim of reorienting educational work away from economic and political universals and toward a subjective response to the child as a human being with concerns, rights, and as a subject worthy of recognition. © 2016 the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Author Keywords
common core; Foucault; neoliberalism; subjectification; The child

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