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Audrey Kiéfer et David Risse (eds). La biopolitique outre-atlantique après Foucault, Editions Harmattan, 2012

From the détentions et rétentions carcérales blog

Principe de précaution. Bioéthique. Multiplication et diversification des dispositifs de contrôle des corps. Sexualité. Placement sous surveillance électronique. Village d’insertion pour les communautés Roms. Ces dispositifs de pouvoirs se présentent-ils comme rassurants, novateurs, libéralisateurs ? Ou bien, au contraire, se posent-ils comme des systèmes insidieux, indéchiffrables, effrayants ou simplement normalisants ?

Que penser de ces nouveaux modes de contrôle qui émergent ou dominent nos sociétés ?

Foucault ne parlait pas, stricto sensu, de sociétés de contrôle mais, pour satisfaire le « pacte de sécurité », des contrôles toujours plus fins se mettent en place et se structurent. Pour conceptualiser cette gestion du pluriel, cette régulation des flux, ce contrôle des corps, Foucault parlait, non plus de « discipline » comme il le faisait à propos de la majoration des forces individuelles, mais plutôt, de biopolitique.

Devons-nous alors comprendre cette mutation et division du contrôle comme une biopolitisation de la société ?

Ce livre, issu d’un colloque international organisé à Ottawa en 2009, espère apporter quelques éléments de réponse à ces questions : d’abord par des analyses théorico-critiques de la pensée foucaldienne ; ensuite, par une attention portée à l’actualité et aux usages contemporains de la biopolitique. Enraciné dans la réalité d’Outre-Atlantique, cet ouvrage offre au lecteur une vision élargie et plurielle de la biopolitique. En prenant acte de la diversité des approches françaises et nord-américaines, le lecteur pourra apprécier les convergences et les différences de points de vue.

SOMMAIRE :

INTRODUCTION par Audrey Kiéfer et David Risse

1° Une généalogie du pouvoir :

Alexandre Mac Millan : Pouvoir souverain et pouvoir sur la vie : Continuité et rupture dans l’histoire des relations de pouvoir chez Foucault.

Julie Mazaleigue : Le corps sexuel, entre discipline et biopouvoir. Une lecture critique du « dispositif de sexualité ».

Stéphanie Martens : Le concept de biopolitique chez Foucault : entre souveraineté et gouvernementalité.

Arona Moreau : Foucault et le renouveau de la pensée politique.

2° La population, un concept central :

Karlis Racevsis : La fin de l’homme et de l’exception humaine.

Hervé Oulc’hen : La population, émergence d’un concept technologique.

Luca Paltrinieri : L’émergence de la population : Mirabeau, Quesnay, Moheau.

3° Le sujet et la santé, des outils biopolitiques :

Louise Blais : Le couple conceptuel : Savoirs savants/savoirs ordinaires.

Carole Clavier : Biopolitique et santé publique. Réflexion sur les usages du concept en santé publique.

4° De la sécurité, au nom du thérapeutique ou du désirable ?

Thomas Foth et Dave Holmes : Gestion biopolitique d’une population captive.

Fabrice Duclos : Gouvernementalité et contrôle des corps : pour une biopolitique de la pharmaceutique.

Olivier Razac : Il faut lutter contre les morts prématurées.

Paul La Bas : Biopolitique des gens du voyage.

Tony Ferri : La biopolitique et le Placement sous surveillance électronique (P.S.E.).

POSTFACE de Lawrence Olivier

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The proceedings of the workshop on “Foucault and Utilitarianism” have just been released as a special issue in the bilingual Revue d’études benthamiennes.

Summary
In the 1970s, with the publication of Discipline and Punish, and with the development of his concept of discipline, Foucault put Bentham back on the map of academic study. However, Bentham scholars have not been thankful for Foucault’s interest, which has contributed to present Bentham in the shape of a disciplinary freak, to the exclusion of any other more ‘progressive’ aspects of his thought. The last decade has witnessed a remarkable reappraisal of Foucault’s misjudged strategic reading, thanks to the editions of the Collected Works, to the research of the Centre Bentham, and to the publications of Foucault’s lectures at the Collège de France, which display a much more subtle understanding of Bentham’s theory. Throughout his life and within his work, Foucault’s political struggles and his philosophical studies raise the issue of his relationship with classical utilitarianism. With its expertise on utilitarianism and its marked interest in Foucault, the Revue d’études benthamienne is the first to offer a special issue on this relationship.

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The IVR XXV WORLD CONGRESS OF PHILOSOPHY OF LAW AND SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY will take place at Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt, Germany, from August 15th to 20th 2011.

All the papers effectively presented in this special workshop will be translated into Portuguese, with the permission of the author, and published as a book in Brazil, possibily a bilingual edition.

August 18th 2011
SPECIAL WORKSHOP ON BIOPOLITICS
CALL FOR ABSTRACTS AND PAPERS

Michel Foucault summarizes his understanding of the term Biopolitics in the abstract of his 1978-1979 Course at College de France: it is understood as the way it was tried, since the XVIII century, to rationalize the problems faced by governmental practices by means of phenomena concerning a group of living beings taken as a population: health, hygiene, birth rates, races… In his 1975-1976 course he defines it as the movement by which power takes charge of life concerns. Gilles Deleuze spoke of the idea of managing a multiplicity of beings (a given population) over a vast and open space, where probabilistics become increasingly relevant. Giorgio Agamben states that the totalitarianism of our century is founded on the dynamical identity of life and politics.

This special workshop is intended to gather members and scholars who consider the idea of Biopolitics as understood by the authors above mentioned – as well as by other contemporary philosophers – useful for a better comprehension of XX and XXI century national and international politics. There is a special interest in discussions towards the ways Biopolitics can be related to the role of Social Philosophy and Philosophy of Law in the present world.

Papers relating the concept of Biopolitcs or the works of the above authors to other philosophical traditions are also welcome.

Abstracts up to 500 words should be sent by email until April 31st 2011 to one of the coordinators indicated below.

Full papers, until June 30th 2011, designed for a 20 minutes presentation, including 5 minutes for discussion. More time will be allowed if possible.

Abstracts and papers should be written and presented in English.

All selected participants should register for the Congress.
Further information can be obtained at the Congress website
For a list of other groups and workshops to be held in the Congress, please refer to the same website.

Special Workshop Coordinators

Prof. Lucas de Alvarenga Gontijo
Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais – Brazil
alvarengagontijo@gmail.com

Prof. Luís Antônio Cunha Ribeiro
Universidade Federal Fluminense – Brazil
advogados@superig.com.br

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The proceedings of the Congresso Nacional de Psicanálise, Direito e Literatura: estética da existência (the National Congress of Psychoanalysis, Law and Literature: aesthetics of existence) convened by Fábio Belo in Brazil in 2009 have just been published here

Introduction in Portuguese
“Êthopoien, quer dizer: fazer o êthos, produzir o êthos, modificar, transformar o êthos, a maneira de ser, o modo de existência de um indivíduo. Aquilo que é êthopoiosé alguma coisa que tem a qualidade de transformar o modo de ser de um indivíduo.” (Foucault, L’Herméneutique du Sujet, p. 227).

Essa definição de etopoético já responde à nossa questão. É bastante evidente que o direito é um saber etopoético. Resta, no entanto, pesquisar como se estabelecem as modificações perpetradas pelo direito na vida de cada um de nós.

Casos mais visíveis como a luta por direitos de “minorias” são exemplos muito potentes do caráter etopoético do campo jurídico. Pensemos nas conquistas das mulheres, dos negros, dos homossexuais, apenas para ficarmos nos mais recentes.

Claro, não se pode dizer que é apenas através do direito que as parcerias homoeróticas vão fazer valer seus direitos civis. Tamém não é por decreto que as mulheres entram no campo do trabalho ou dirimem a dominação masculina. E, certamente, não será apenas pela invenção de leis que o racismo e suas consequências vão desaparecer. Mas, parece-nos impossível que essas lutas não passem pelo campo jurídico. Afinal, a questão da parceria homoafetiva sempre vai esbarrar nos entraves da lei: a adoção, a herança, os benefícios do cônjuge… A mulher muitas vezes também terá que recorrer às leis que não só garantem seu acesso ao trabalho e à cidadania, mas também a protegem da possível violência contra ela. E o negro se valerá dos recursos jurídicos – das leis contra o racismo às quotas universitárias – para fazer valer seus direitos.

Esses exemplos também deixam bem claro que o direito pode ter um caráter reverso. Inventemos um nome: eto-mortífero… eto-paralisante… Ou seja: as engrenagens jurídicas podem “engessar” a criação ou a modificação de novos êthos, de novas formas de vida, pois há forças “conservadoras” que mantem o laço social fixo, tal como está. Pior: avesso à qualquer mudança. Sabemos como essas conquistas são demoradas, são “forçadas”. Não se realizam da noite para o dia. É isso que interessa pesquisar, não? Quais são as forças aqui pró e contra o etopoético? O que impede e o que promove essa mudança no laço social, no nosso modo de ser?

Fábio Belo

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